Apart from the Great Himalayan Mountain, the Northern Plain, the Peninsular Plateau, the Great Indian Desert, and the Coastal Plains, the Physiographic division of India includes 1208 Islands. The Islands of India can be classified into Andaman & Nicobar Islands group and Lakshadweep Islands group.
There are also some coral islands in the Gulf of Mannar (shallow bay between the southeastern point of India and western coast of Srilanka.
Islands of India – Classification:
There are two main groups of Islands of India.
- Lakshadweep Islands Group
- Andaman and Nicobar Islands Group
1. Lakshadweep Islands Group:
Lakshadweep is a group of Islands situated in the Laccadive Sea. These Islands had formed the smallest Union Territory of India. The word ‘Lakshadweep‘ means ‘a collection of lakh Islands‘.
- Total no of Islands – 39 (10 Islands are inhabited and the remaining have no population)
- Total Area – 32 sq km.
- Total population – 65,473
- Amindivi, Laccadive, and Minicoy, these are the main sub-groups of Lakshadweep.
- Important Islands – Kavaratti (Capital of Lakshadweep), Agatti, Minicoy, and Amini.
2. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Group:
Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of Islands situated at the meeting point of Bay of Bengal and Andaman sea. It is one of the seven Union Territories in India. There are two Islands group, i.e. the Andaman Islands in the North and Nicobar Islands in the South. These two Islands group are separated by Ten Degree Channel. There are total 572 Islands in this group.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands were formed due to a mega-collision between two plates. i.e. Indian Plate and Burma Minor Plateau.
Andaman Islands Group:
The Andaman Islands are divided into two parts;
- A. Great Andamans
- B. Little Andamans
The Great Andamans can further be classified into –
- A.1. North Andamans
- A.2. Middle Andamans
- A.3. South Andamans
- Little Andamans is separated from the Great Andamans by Duncan Passage.
- Narcondam and Barren are the two volcanic islands of India, where Narcondam is dormant or inactive and Barren is active.
- Saddle Peak (732 m), located in North Andaman is the highest point of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- Port Blair is the Capital of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, situated in the South Andaman.
Nicobar Islands Group:
The Nicobar Islands group consist 247 Island. Some of the important islands are Car Nicobar, Camorta, Katchall, Nancowry, and the great Nicobar in the South. Among these islands, the great Nicobar is the largest one.
Other important Islands of India:
(Except Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar Island)
- New Moore Island
- Abdul Kalam Island