15 Rules of changing Singular to Plural noun

rules of changing singular to plural noun

Rules of changing singular to plural: According to the definition of the noun, it is a part of speech that functions as the name of living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, the state of existence or ideas. Nouns can be classified under two number categories; singular noun & plural noun. Singular means only one where plural represents more than one.

There are few basic rules to remember when it comes to turning a singular noun to a plural. In this post, we will discuss 15 such basic rules of changing singular to plural noun.


Rules of Changing singular to plural:

 Rule #1:

If -s, -sh, -ch, -ss, -x and -z are the last letters of the noun, put -es to the end to make them plural.


  • Class – Classes
  • Bus – Buses
  • Dish – Dishes
  • Toss – Tosses


  • Monarch – Monarchs
  • Stomach – Stomachs


Rule #2:

If there is -o to the end of a singular noun, put -es to the end to make the singular to the plural form.


  • Hero – Heroes
  • Zero – Zeroes


  • Photo – Photos
  • Dynamo – Dynamos
  • Solo – Solos
  • Momento – Momentos
  • Stereo – Stereos


Rule #3:

If there are double vowels to the end, put only -s to the end to change singular to plural.


  • Radio – Radios
  • Ratio – Ratios
  • Studio – Studios
  • Bamboo – Bamboos


Rule #4:

If -y is the last letter of a singular noun and it is preceded by a constant, to make it plural just change -y into -ies.


  • Spy – Spies
  • Lady – Ladies
  • Baby – Babies
  • History – Histories


Rule #5:

If -y is the last letter preceded by a vowel, add -s to the end to make the plural form.


  • Boy – Boys
  • Toy – Toys
  • Lay – Lays
  • Ray – Rays


Rule #6:

If -f and -fe ate the last letter/letters of a singular noun, to make it plural we write -ves instead of -f/-fe.


  • Knife – Knives
  • Wife – Wifes
  • Leaf – Leaves
  • Thief – Thieves


  • Proof – Proofs
  • Roof – Roofs
  • Belief – Beliefs
  • Roof – Roofs
  • Chief – Chiefs
  • Gulf – Gulfs


Rule #7:

Few singular nouns form their plural forms by changing the inside vowel.


  • Man – Men
  • Woman – Women
  • Tooth – Teeth
  • Goose – Geese
  • Mouse – Mice


Rule #8:

Adding -en to the singular form to transform into the plural.


  • Ox – Oxen
  • Child – Children


Rule #9:

There are some nouns, whose singular and plural forms are alike.

  • Swine – Swine
  • Deer – Deer
  • Pair – Pair
  • Dozen – Dozen
  • Score – Score
  • Stone (unit) – Stone


Rule #10:

There are some nouns which are only used in plurals.

(a) Names of the instruments which have two parts forming a kind of pair.

Example:  spectacles, scissors, pincers etc.

(b) Names of certain articles of dress.

Example:  trousers, drawers, breeches etc.

(c) Names if disease.

Example:  Measles, Mumps etc.

(d) Names of games.

Example:  Billiards, Draughts etc.


Rule #11:

There are some plural forms of nouns which are actually singular.

Example:  Innings, Mathematics, News, Civics, Politics, Physics, Ethics, Economics, Mechanics etc.

NOTE: If plural-looking subjects are particularized or possessed, they become plural nouns.

For example; Mathematics (singular) is an easy subject. -> (possessed) -> My mathematics (plural) are strong.


Rule #12:

The following nouns are always used in singular forms.


  • Scenery
  • Machinery
  • Luggage
  • Breakage
  • Furniture
  • Wastage
  • Traffic
  • Information
  • Coffee
  • Dust etc.


Rule #13:

Some collective nouns though are singular in form but always use as plural.

Example:  Poultry, Cattle, People, Vermin etc.


Rule #14:

To make some compound nouns from singular to plural we add -s to the main word.


  • Father-in-law -> Fathers-in-law
  • Daughter-in-law -> Daughters-in-law
  • Mother-in-law -> Mothers-in-law
  • Maid servant -> Maid servants
  • Man killer -> Man killers
  • Chief minister -> Chief ministers


Rule #15:

Some -um ending latin words take only -s in plurals.


  • Harmonium – Harmoniums
  • Premium – Premiums
  • Forum – Forums
  • Stadium – Stadiums
  • Pendulum – Pendulums

So, we have discussed fifteen basic rules of changing singular to plural form that we often get confused. Hope this post might help you to overcome your confusion and make your writing skills more errorless and best.

If you think this post helps you, please don’t forget to share with your friends and help them too, because as I always said: “SHARING is CARING”.

Hi Friends! My name is Indrasish Mukherjee and I am the founder of One Xtra Paper. As a govt. job aspirant I want to share my experience and some relevant study materials & Job information with you guys.

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